Dr Caroline Horton

Caroline joined BGU in April 2015 and, alongside being an active researcher, leads BGU’s PhD Programme and contributes to the undergraduate BA Psychology courses. Caroline directs the DrEAMSLab here at BGU (see: www.dreamslab.co.uk / @sleepandmemory).

Before joining BGU, Caroline obtained her undergraduate (2003) and Master's (2004) degrees in Psychology from the University of Durham, her PhD from the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds (2007), and a PGCHE from Leeds Metropolitan University (2008). Caroline has taught at the Universities of Durham and Leeds as well as the Open University, and predominantly at Leeds Metropolitan University where she was a Lecturer then Senior Lecturer (2007-2015). Her research interests principally span the fields of sleep, dreaming, and memory, and the relationships between those concepts.


Caroline supervises a number of doctoral students (as detailed below) and contributes across the BA Psychology suite of courses, specialising in Cognitive Psychology and Quantitative Methods, and dissertation supervision. She has been a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy since 2009. Caroline previously acted as Academic Coordinator for the BA Psychology programme.

Related Courses

Caroline is an active researcher in the field of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, with a particular interest in studying dreaming as a reflection of autobiographical memory consolidation processes. Caroline conducts empirical research using a range of paradigms and has national and international collaborations spanning interests in sleep, memory, metamemory, emotion and dreaming. Caroline’s research has been funded by the Dream Science Foundation, as well as the Royal Society, the BPS and Brain for international conference and training visits.

Vytautas Nastajus July 2016-present (“Exploring sleep-dependent episodic memory consolidation using Virtual Environments”); BGU studentship, first supervisor Anthony Bloxham Oct 2016-present (“Dreaming and memory consolidation in sleep”); BGU studentship, first supervisor Teresa Garrod July 2016-present (“Great Expectations: A Phenomenological inquiry into women’s experiences of maternity care following a previous perinatal loss”) BGU studentship, first supervisor Jan Machalski Oct 2016-present (“Diagnosis or not? The experience of parental decision making during the diagnostic process of Asperger’s Syndrome or High Functioning Autism”); BGU, second supervisor Fiona Henrich May 2017-present (“The adaptive function of dreams in PTSD”); Swinbourne University, Australia, external supervisor. Phil Nicholson Oct 2017-present (“What factors contribute to supporting play-based approaches across the transition to Year 1?”), BGU studentship, second supervisor. Caroline also contributes sessions and supervision to the EdD programme. Caroline has supervised doctoral students to completion and is always keen to hear from anyone interested in pursuing PhD research, especially in sleep and learning.

Caroline currently conducts several empirical and writing projects, including (but not limited to): Horton, C.L. & Llewellyn, S. (2018-) Guest editor for Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic: Cognition during Sleep: Hyperassociativity, Associativity and New Connections https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/7888/ Horton, C.L., Durrant, S., Law, G (both of University of Lincoln), working with FitConnect, Millbrook Beds and parkrun, “Dynamic and transactional relationships between sleep and activity”. (2018-) Horton, C.L. & Cole, S. Dreaming and future thought. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. Do we dream to assimilate ‘important’ waking life experiences into our memory schemas? (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Horton, C.L. The incorporation of emotional autobiographical memories into dreams reflects memory consolidation processes. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Caroline is also editing a forthcoming text book: Horton, C.L. (Ed.) Sleep and Cognition (edited text book): Taylor and Francis.

Horton, C.L. & Malinowski, J.E. (2018) Emotion regulation in dreaming. In R. Hoss, K. Valli & R. Gongloff (Eds) Dreams: Understanding Biology, Psychology, and Culture (2018). ABC: CLIO. Horton, C.L. (2017) Consciousness across sleep and wake – continuity and discontinuity of memory experiences. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 8, 159. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00159 Malinowski, J.E. & Horton, C.L. (2015) Metaphor and hyperassociativity: The imagination mechanisms behind emotional memory assimilation in sleep and dreams. Frontiers in Psychology. In press. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01132 Horton, C.L. & Malinowski. J.E. (2015) Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 874. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00874 Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Differences in dreams of waking life from early-night to late-night sleep. Dreaming, 24(4), 253-269 Horton, C.L. (2014) Dream recall and confabulation. (2014) Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 34(2),163-177 Malinowski, J.E., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Memory sources of dreams: The incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 23(4), 441-7 Malinowski, J., Fylan, F., & Horton, C.L. (2014). Experiencing ‘continuity’: A qualitative investigation of waking life in dreams. Dreaming, 24(3):161-175 Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Emotion but not stress modulates the incorporation of waking experiences into dreams. Dreaming, 24(1), 18-31 Kahan, T.A,. & Horton, C.L. (2012) Methodological challenges in dream research. In Barratt, D. (Ed). Encyclopaedia of Sleep and Dreaming Horton, C.L. & Malinowski, J. (2011) Re-defining discontinuity: Implications for the functions of dreaming. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 34-36 Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L.(2011) Themes of continuity. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 42-48 Horton, C.L. (2011) Rehearsal of Dreams and Waking Events Improves the Quality, But Not the Quantity, of Autobiographical Recall. Dreaming, 21(3), 181-196 Horton, C.L. (2011) Recall and Recognition of Dreams and Waking Events: A Diary Paradigm. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(1), 8-16 Horton, C.L. (2010) A commentary on Blagrove et al.’s Dream-lag effect: Implications for memory sources. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(2), 392-393 Parke, A.R., & Horton, C.L. (2009) A re-examination of the interference hypothesis of dream recall and salience. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(2), 60-69 Horton, C.L., Moulin, C.J.A., & Conway, M.A. (2009) The self and dreams during a period of transition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(3), 710-717 Horton, C.L. & Conway, M.A. (2009) The Memory Experiences and Dreams Questionnaire: A Validated Measure of Dream Remembering. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(1), 3-29 Horton, C.L. (2008) Applying memory theory to dream recall: Are dreams and waking memories the same? In Kelley, M. R. (Ed). Applied Memory. New York: Nova Science Horton, C.L., Conway, M.A., and Cohen, G. (2007) Memory for thoughts and dreams. In Memory in the Real World, 2nd edition. Eds. Cohen, G. and Conway, M.A. Psychology Press Plus several published conference abstracts and papers, additional presentations and seminars.

  • (2018) £243,000, Education Endowment Foundation bid, “Evaluating the impact of a sleep hygiene training plan on disabled children and their families as they transition to primary school”, in collaboration with KIDS (https://www.kids.org.uk/). Application pending.
  • (2017) £25,381.56, Plan Cambodia, “Baseline study to support Plan Cambodia’s Young Bamboo integrated early childhood care and development projects in Ratanakiri and Stung Treng”, PI Dr. Emma Pearson (BGU), Dr. Caroline Horton, Prof. Sok Uttara (Pannasastra University, Cambodia) and Dr. Sun Jin (Hong Kong University of Education)
  • (2017) £2979.69 BGU internal Research Investment Fund, “Episodic and autobiographical memory consolidation during sleep: Implications for learning in a Higher Education environment”. Dr. Caroline Horton (PI), co-applicants Dr Tom Dunn, Mr Martin Smith, Ms Gemma Houghton, Mr Vytautas Nastajus, Mr Anthony Bloxham.
  • (2016-2018) $2500 Dream Science Foundation, “Future oriented cognition in dreams”. Dr Caroline Horton (PI) & Dr. Scott Cole, York St. John University.
  • (2015-2017) £3000 BPS Seminars Competition, “What can dreaming tell us about memory consolidation in sleep?” Dr. Caroline Horton, (PI) with Co-applicants Prof. Sue Llewellyn, University of Manchester, Dr. Josie Malinowski, University of Bedfordshire, and Prof. Mark Blagrove, University of Swansea.
More Widely Caroline is a chartered psychologist (CPsychol), a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, and a member of several academic associations (British Sleep Society, British Psychological Society Cognitive Section, International Association for the Study of Dreams (IASD), a research committee member of IASD, European Sleep Research Society, Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, Psychonomics Society member, Association of Psychological Science, and the Greater Yorkshire Memory Group). Caroline is a regular peer reviewer for several journals and is an action editor for Frontiers in Psychopathology. She has acted as an internal and external examiner at PhD level. Caroline was awarded the Emerging Researcher of the Year Award in 2011 by Leeds Metropolitan University (Awards in Excellence). Caroline’s research receives regular media coverage and she enjoys engaging non-academic audiences with healthy sleep and dreaming. Caroline is the Chair of BGU’s Research Ethics Committee and also sits on the Research Committee, the Research Students’ Committee and the Doctoral Programmes Committee (the latter three in her role as PhD Programme Leader).