Dr Caroline Horton
Caroline joined BGU in April 2015. She is a Reader in Psychology: Consciousness and Cognition, where she is director of the DrEAMSLab, Chair of the Research Ethics Committee, and Lead for the Psychology, Health and Wellbeing Research and Knowledge Exchange Unit. Caroline contributes to the undergraduate BA Psychology courses, having previous programme led the courses, as well as the PhD programme. (see: www.dreamslab.co.uk / @sleepandmemory).
More widely, Caroline is the Co-Director of the Lincoln Sleep Research Centre (LiSReC), the Treasurer and Trustee of the British Sleep Society, an elected committee member of the Cognitive Section of the British Psychological Society, where she is also a Chartered Psychologist (CPsychol), and a member of the International Association for the Study of Dreams Research Board. Caroline is affiliated to research groups at the University of Lincoln, and Swinburne University, Australia. Caroline is a regular reviewer for several academic journals, a renowned expert in sleep, dreaming and memory, as well as on the Editorial Board for Sleep Psychology, and two of the Frontiers in Psychology journals. Caroline has been an external examiner at the University of Edinburgh (2019-2023; MSc Psychology of Mental Health) and is currently an examiner at the University of Derby (Psychology MRes) and Newman University (MSc Psychology (conversion)) and has externally examined several research degrees.
Before joining BGU, Caroline obtained her undergraduate (2003) and Master's (2004) degrees in Psychology from the University of Durham, her PhD from the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds (2007), and a PGCHE from Leeds Metropolitan University (2008). Caroline has taught at the Universities of Durham and Leeds as well as the Open University, and predominantly at Leeds Metropolitan University where she was a Lecturer then Senior Lecturer (2007-2015).
Caroline’s research interests principally span the fields of sleep, dreaming, and memory, and the relationships between those concepts. She has pioneered and developed the Sleep Well programme, a behavioural sleep improvement programme, which is being rolled out to various populations, including young adults with anxiety, and people living with diabetes.
Caroline regularly features in the media, on BBC radio shows and international podcasts. She is the founder and host of the Sleep Science Pod.
Caroline supervises a number of doctoral students (as detailed below) and contributes across the BA Psychology suite of courses, specialising in Cognitive Psychology and Research Methods, and dissertation supervision. She contributes to the Education Doctorate (EdD), taught and research strands. She has been a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy since 2009. Caroline previously acted as Academic Coordinator for the BA Psychology programme.
- Environmental Psychology
- Psychology and English
- Psychology and Counselling
- Psychology and Early Childhood Studies
- Psychology and Education Studies
- Psychology and Sociology
- Psychology and Special Educational Needs, Disability & Inclusion
- Psychology and Sport
- Psychology with Foundation Year
- Psychology and English with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Counselling with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Early Childhood Studies with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Education Studies with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Sociology with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Special Educational Needs, Disability & Inclusion with Foundation Year
- Psychology and Sport with Foundation Year
Caroline is an active researcher in the field of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, with a particular interest in studying dreaming as a reflection of autobiographical memory consolidation processes. Caroline conducts empirical research using a range of paradigms and has national and international collaborations spanning interests in sleep, memory, metamemory, emotion and dreaming. Caroline’s research has been funded by the Dream Science Foundation, as well as the Royal Society, the BPS and Brain for international conference and training visits.
PhD: (Sept 2009-Nov 2012) Director of Studies (first supervisor) for Josie Malinowski’s PhD studentship, funded by Leeds Metropolitan University, “How and Why We Dream of Waking Life: An Empirical Investigation into the Continuity Hypothesis of Dreaming”. Passed viva March 2013.
PhD: (Oct 2016-Oct 2020) First supervisor (BGU) for Anthony Bloxham, “Dreaming and memory consolidation” Passed viva April 2021, corrections accepted June 2021.
PhD: (July 2016-Oct 2020) First supervisor (BGU) for Vytautas Nastajus, “Sleep-dependent episodic memory consolidation using virtual environments”. Passed viva May 2021, corrections accepted June 2021.
PhD: (July 2016-May 2021) First supervisor (BGU) for Teresa Garrod, “Experiences of pregnancy and loss”. Passed viva Oct 2021. Corrections accepted December 2021.
Teresa Garrod July 2016-present (“Great Expectations: A Phenomenological inquiry into women’s experiences of maternity care following a previous perinatal loss”) BGU studentship, first supervisor
Vytautas Nastajus July 2016-present (“Exploring sleep-dependent episodic memory consolidation using Virtual Environments”); BGU studentship, first supervisor
Anthony Bloxham Oct 2016-present (“Dreaming and memory consolidation in sleep”); BGU studentship, first supervisor
Jan Machalski Oct 2016-present (“Diagnosis or not? The experience of parental decision making during the diagnostic process of Asperger’s Syndrome or High Functioning Autism”); BGU, second supervisor
Fiona Henrich May 2017-present (“The adaptive function of dreams in PTSD”); Swinbourne University, Australia, external supervisor.
PhD (October 2017-September 2021, full time) Second supervisor (BGU) for Phil Nicholson, “What factors contribute to supporting play-based approaches across the transition to Year 1?” Viva passed with minor corrections Feb 2022. Corrections accepted May 2022.
PhD (joined August 2019, full time) First supervisor (BGU) for Jo Cormack, “Parenting picky eaters: IPA approach”. Passed viva November 2021. Corrections accepted January 2022.
Caroline also contributes sessions and supervision to the EdD programme and has supervised doctoral students to completion. She supervises both PhD and EdD students, and is always interested to hear from potential students who may wish to explore doctoral study exploring sleep, memory consolidation, dreaming and/or emotion regulation.
In addition, Caroline has three doctoral students awaiting their visas and another two close to submission.
Caroline currently conducts several empirical and writing projects, including (but not limited to): Horton, C.L. & Llewellyn, S. (2018-) Guest editor for Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic: Cognition during Sleep: Hyperassociativity, Associativity and New Connections https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/7888/ Horton, C.L., Durrant, S., Law, G (both of University of Lincoln), working with FitConnect, Millbrook Beds and parkrun, “Dynamic and transactional relationships between sleep and activity”. (2018-) Horton, C.L. & Cole, S. Dreaming and future thought. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. Do we dream to assimilate ‘important’ waking life experiences into our memory schemas? (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Horton, C.L. The incorporation of emotional autobiographical memories into dreams reflects memory consolidation processes. (Funded by the Dream Science Foundation) Caroline is also editing a forthcoming text book: Horton, C.L. (Ed.) Sleep and Cognition (edited text book): Taylor and Francis.
Horton, C.L. The neurobiology of dreaming. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences (IF: 3.47). (Under review)
Bloxham, A., & Horton, C.L. Enhancing and Advancing the Understanding and Study of Dreaming and Memory Consolidation: Reflections, Challenges, Theoretical Clarity, and Methodological Considerations. Under review, Consciousness and Cognition.
Horton, C.L. Emotion regulation in dreams. (chapter) Cambridge Handbook of Sleep Theories and Models. Forthcoming: 2023.
Pearson, E., Rao, N., Hendry, H., Horton, C.L., Aboud, F., & Siraj, I. (2023) Workforce preparation for delivery of nurturing care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: expert consensus on critical multi-sectoral training needs, Child: Care, Health & Development. http://doi.org/10.1111/cch.13180
Malinowski, J.E., & Horton, C.L. (2021) Dreams reflect nocturnal cognitive processes: Early-night dreams are continuous with waking life, and late-night dreams are emotional and hyperassociative, Consciousness and Cognition, 88, 103071. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2020.103071
Horton, C.L. & Llewellyn, S. (2021) Editorial: Cognition during Sleep: Hyperassociativity, Associativity and New Connections, Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 4056. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.641547
Horton, C. L., Llewellyn, S., eds. (2021). Cognition During Sleep: Hyperassociativity, Associativity and New Connections. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88966-559-4
Horton, C.L. (2020) Key concepts in dream research: Cognition and consciousness are inherently linked, but do no not control “control”! Frontiers in Human Neuroscience: Cognitive Neurosciences. 14(259) 1-4. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00259.
Bloxham, A., Horton, C.L., & Durrant, S. (2019) reactivating and consolidating memories in sleep and dreams. International Journal of Dream Research, 12, S40.
Horton, C.L., Dimoraleva, M., Bloxham, A. & Nastajus, V. (2019) The effect of sleep duration on autobiographical memory retrieval in healthy post-teen adults: A systematic review. PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews. 2019. CRD42019140168. Available from:
Horton, C.L. & Malinowski, J.E. (2018) Emotion regulation in dreaming. In R. Hoss, K. Valli & R. Gongloff (Eds) Dreams: Understanding Biology, Psychology, and Culture (2018). ABC: CLIO.
Pearson, E., Horton, C.L., Smith, M., Uttara, S., Dinath, K., & Jin, S. (2018) Report on baseline study for Young Bamboo: Early Childhood Care and Development for Remote Areas in Stung Treng and Ratanakiri Provinces, Report for PLAN International Cambodia on funded project, “Baseline study to support Plan Cambodia’s Young Bamboo integrated early childhood care and development projects in Ratanakiri and Stung Treng”.
Pearson, E., Horton, C.L., Smith, M., Uttara, S., Dinath, K., & Jin, S. (2018) Report on THRIVE: Promoting a Healthy Childhood through Quality ECCD, Nutrition, and WASH in Northeast Cambodia, Report for PLAN International Cambodia on funded project, ““Baseline study to support Plan Cambodia’s Young Bamboo integrated early childhood care and development projects in Ratanakiri and Stung Treng”.
Horton, C.L. (2017) Consciousness across sleep and wake – continuity and discontinuity of memory experiences. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 8, 159. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00159
Pearson, E; Hendry, H.; Rao, N., Aboud, F., Horton, C.L., Siraj, I., Raikes, A., & Miyahara, J. (June 2017) Reaching expert consensus on training different cadres in delivering early childhood development at scale in low-resource contexts, Technical report for Department for International Development
Horton, C.L. (2016). The continuity of the autobiographical memory system across sleep and wake: The self in dreams, International Journal of Dream Research, 9(1) S54
Malinowski, J.E. & Horton, C.L. (2015) Metaphor and hyperassociativity: The imagination mechanisms behind emotional memory assimilation in sleep and dreams. Frontiers in Psychology: Psychopathology. 6, 1132. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01132
Horton, C.L. & Malinowski. J.E. (2015) Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep. Frontiers in Psychology: Psychopathology, 6, 874. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00874
Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Differences in dreams of waking life from early-night to late-night sleep. Dreaming, 24(4), 253-269
Horton, C.L. (2014) Dream recall and confabulation. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 34(2),163-177.
Malinowski, J.E., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Memory sources of dreams: The incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 23(4), 441-7.
Malinowski, J., Fylan, F., & Horton, C.L. (2014). Experiencing ‘continuity’: A qualitative investigation of waking life in dreams. Dreaming, 24(3):161-175
Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L. (2014) Evidence for the preferential incorporation of emotional waking-life experiences into dreams. Dreaming, 24(1), 18-31.
Kahan, T.A,. & Horton, C.L. (2012) Methodological challenges in dream research. In D. Barratt & P. McNamara. (Eds). Encyclopaedia of Sleep and Dreaming, Greenwood, 418-421
Horton, C.L. & Malinowski, J. (2011) Re-defining discontinuity: Implications for the functions of dreaming. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 78-80.
Malinowski, J., & Horton, C.L.(2011) Themes of continuity. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 42-48.
Horton, C.L. (2011) Rehearsal of Dreams and Waking Events Improves the Quality, But Not the Quantity, of Autobiographical Recall. Dreaming, 21(3), 181-196.
Horton, C.L. (2011) Recall and Recognition of Dreams and Waking Events: A Diary Paradigm. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(1), 8-16.
Horton, C.L. (2010) A commentary on Blagrove et al.’s Dream-lag effect: Implications for memory sources. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(2), 392-393.
Parke, A.R., & Horton, C.L. (2009) A re-examination of the interference hypothesis of dream recall and salience. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(2), 60-69.
Horton, C.L., Moulin, C.J.A., & Conway, M.A. (2009) The self and dreams during a period of transition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(3), 710-717.
Horton, C.L. & Conway, M.A. (2009) The Memory Experiences and Dreams Questionnaire: A Validated Measure of Dream Remembering. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(1), 3-29.
Plus several published conference abstracts and papers, additional presentations and seminars.
- (2018) £243,000, Education Endowment Foundation bid, “Evaluating the impact of a sleep hygiene training plan on disabled children and their families as they transition to primary school”, in collaboration with KIDS (https://www.kids.org.uk/). Application pending.
- (2017) £25,381.56, Plan Cambodia, “Baseline study to support Plan Cambodia’s Young Bamboo integrated early childhood care and development projects in Ratanakiri and Stung Treng”, PI Dr. Emma Pearson (BGU), Dr. Caroline Horton, Prof. Sok Uttara (Pannasastra University, Cambodia) and Dr. Sun Jin (Hong Kong University of Education)
- (2017) £2979.69 BGU internal Research Investment Fund, “Episodic and autobiographical memory consolidation during sleep: Implications for learning in a Higher Education environment”. Dr. Caroline Horton (PI), co-applicants Dr Tom Dunn, Mr Martin Smith, Ms Gemma Houghton, Mr Vytautas Nastajus, Mr Anthony Bloxham.
- (2016-2018) $2500 Dream Science Foundation, “Future oriented cognition in dreams”. Dr Caroline Horton (PI) & Dr. Scott Cole, York St. John University.
- (2015-2017) £3000 BPS Seminars Competition, “What can dreaming tell us about memory consolidation in sleep?” Dr. Caroline Horton, (PI) with Co-applicants Prof. Sue Llewellyn, University of Manchester, Dr. Josie Malinowski, University of Bedfordshire, and Prof. Mark Blagrove, University of Swansea.